מאמריו של (Tinto (Vincent עוסקים בסוגיית הנשירה ממוסדות להשכלה גבוהה בארה"ב. החוקר פיתח מודל לתיאור והסבר תופעת הנשירה. חוקרים רבים מתייחסים למודל שלו ומתדיינים עימו. כאן תוכלו לראות הפניות לחלק ממאמריו ולקרוא את המבואות והמסקנות שלהם.
- Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from Higher Education: A Theoretical Synthesis of Recent Research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89-125. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1170024
Despite the very extensive literature on dropout from higher education, much remains unknown about the nature of the dropout process. In large measure, the failure of past research to delineate more clearly the multiple characteristics of dropout can be traced to two major shortcomings; namely, inadequate attention given to questions of definition and to the development of theoretical models that seek to explain, not simply to describe, the
processes that bring individuals to leave institutions of higher education.
With regard to the former, inadequate attention given to definition has often led researchers to lump together, under the rubric of dropout, forms of leaving behavior that are very different in character. It is not uncommon to find, for instance, research on dropout that fails to distinguish dropout resulting from academic failure from that which is the outcome of voluntary withdrawal. Nor is it uncommon to find permanent dropouts placed together with persons whose leaving may be temporary in nature or may lead to transfer to other institutions of higher
Dropout from Higher Education:Some Concluding Comments
Voluntary Withdrawal and Academic Dismissal In dealing with the effects of individual and institutional characteristics upon individual integration into the academic and social systems of the college, it is, as noted, important to distinguish between the varying types of dropout behaviors, especially between academic dismissal and voluntary withdrawal. This is so not only because these behaviors involve different persons but also because they result from different patterns of interaction within the college setting. Thus, although academic dismissal is
most closely associated with grade performance, dropout in the form of voluntary withdrawal is not. Such withdrawal, instead, appears to relate to the lack of congruency between the individual and both the intellectual climate of the institution and the social system composed of his peers. In this respect, voluntary withdrawals are most frequently found to be both "social isolates" and/or "deviants" regarding the intellectual norms of the institution.
Larger institutions, by providing for a wider variety of student and faculty subcultures and, therefore, for a heightened
probability for some degree of social and intellectual congruency and support, seem to reduce the rate of voluntary withdrawal among their students.
Academic dismissals, on the other hand, are often lacking in both intellectual and social development or are socially integrated to an extreme. That is, dismissals have often been found to be unable to meet the intellectual and social demands of the college or have been so integrated into the social system of the college that academic demands go unmet. In either instance, grade performance is the single strongest predictor of academic dismissal.
Such persons tend to be the least able of the entering college cohort, whereas voluntary withdrawals generally show both higher grade performance and higher levels of intellectual developmentthan do the average persisters. That this is so suggests that higher educational institutions, as presently structured, may be unwilling or unable to meet the needs of its most creative and challenging students. Whether this results from organizational constraints or from what some commentators argue to be the latent social functions of higher education remains to be seen.
Goal Commitment, Institutional Commitment, and Dropout. As suggested by Hackman and Dysinger (1970) and as argued here,the distinction between voluntary withdrawal and academic dismissal, as well as between permanent dropout and transfer,can be more effectively analyzed by taking account of the interplay between the individual's educational commitments (goal commitment) and his commitment to the institution in which he is registered.
It is the levels of goal and institutional commitment, in periods of stable market conditions, as they are affected and modified by the individual's experiences in the academic and social systems of the college, that determine his decision to remain in college. Given sufficiently low goal commitment, individuals tend to withdraw not so much because of poor grade performance as because of insufficient rewards gained in the social system of the college. As a result, low levels of commitment to the institution and to the goal of college completion distinguish the voluntary withdrawal from the person who is an academic dismissal.
That goal and institutional commitment are important parts of the dropout process is further suggested by the fact that, among men, voluntary withdrawal becomes a decreasing proportion of the total yearly dropout as individuals approach college graduation (Sexton, 1965). Since voluntary withdrawal implies a decision on the part of the individual that the benefits of the degree and of persistence in the institution do not outweigh the costs of attendance,it can be argued that perceived benefits increase with increasing nearness to completion. In a real sense, past costs become an investment once those costs have been borne. As a result, the perceived ratio of benefits to costs, other things being equal, would tend to increase as one proceeds through college.
Therefore, one would expect to find both goal and institutional commitment increasing as a function of nearness to the completion of the degree program and proportion of voluntary withdrawals
For both dismissals and voluntary withdrawals, levels of goal and institutional commitment can also be utilized to distinguish between dropouts who transfer from those who leave the system of higher education altogether. Presumably, among dismissals,high goal commitment will lead to transfer to institutions having
lower standards of academic performance (i.e., downward transfer).Among voluntary withdrawals, sufficiently high goal commitment may lead to transfer to institutions perceived to be more matched to the person's intellectual and/or social needs and wants (i.e., horizontal or upward transfer). In both instances, sufficiently low goal commitment will tend to lead to permanent dropout from the system of higher education.
Social Status and Dropout. Interestingly, although voluntary withdrawals tend to be somewhat more able and to exhibit higher levels of intellectual development than do persisters, they also tend to be of somewhat higher social status than the average persisters. Conversely, academic dismissals tend to exhibit both lower aptitude and levels of intellectual development and to be of somewhat lower social status. The average voluntary withdrawal
tends, therefore, to come from higher social status backgrounds than does the average academic dismissal. Given the multiple relationships between academic and social integration, goal and institutional commitment, and varying forms of dropout behaviors,it can then be argued that the effect of coming from lower social status backgrounds upon persistence in college occurs not as much through goal commitment (since dismissals tend to have
levels of goal commitment comparable to that of persisters) as it does through its impact upon academic performance. In this respect, given sufficient social interaction, programs designed to influence the academic performance of persons from lower social status backgrounds (backgrounds frequently of inferior schooling
prior to college) seem to be aimed in the proper direction to enhance their persistence in college. Whether this applies equally well to the various racial minorities that are disproportionately represented in the lower social status categories of college students remains, however, to be determined.
המאמר אינו מוצג בשל זכויות יוצרים. ניתן להשתמש במנועי החיפוש של אתרי האוניברסיטאות.